kokunun alışverişe etkisi

Institutional odor and its first doyens

In 1921, Coco Chanel was preparing to take the wraps off her first commercial fragrance. She had already contracted the most renowned perfumer in Europe to create her No. 5 scent, designed the moderne bottle herself and sent samples to all the society women in Paris. But Chanel needed an extra push to help sell the fragrance at her boutique at 31 rue Cambon. That’s when (the story goes) the designer ordered each of her salesladies to spray the perfume all over the boutique, from the dressing rooms to, especially, the entrance.

Cartier started it first Scent Marketing campaign in 1931, at a time when very few options were available. Perfume sprays (called atomizer perfume bottles) existed since the late 1800s, so I can easily I imagine the personnel walking around the shop spraying the perfume by hand.

Although it's not a recent phenomenon – scent marketing has matured into an authentic marketing technique and, according to its advocates, a very effective one.


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Which Colors Do You Smell?

Bettina Chang · Jul 10, 2014

What does the color red smell like?

According to the infallible question-answerers at Yahoo! Answers, it’s a conglomeration of strawberries, lobsters, red marker pen (huh?), and embers.

One know-it-all writes that some people have synesthesia, a rare condition in which people closely associate one sense with an unrelated other (seeing sounds, numbers appearing as colors, etc.).

People largely agreed that the fruity scent smelled like pink and red, while the musty scent smelled orange and brown.

A group of international researchers, led by Carmel A. Levitan at Occidental College, tested whether our association of colors with smells is universal (hard-wired in our brains) or based on cultural factors like language and frequent association between objects and smells.

Previous studies are inconclusive: Some researchers have shown that connections between odors, musical notes, and geometric shapes are hardwired into our brains. But the color-odor connection isn’t always consistent; Canadians consistently associate almond smell with the color red, but in a separate study, Australians smelled blue.

The international study, published this week in PLoS One, used standardized procedures to measure the odor-color connection among six different cultural groups: Dutch, Netherlands-residing Chinese, German, Malay, Malaysian Chinese, and Americans.

Using a 36-color palette and armed with 14 “odor pens,” researchers asked around 20 people in each cultural group to rate which colors were most and least congruent with each smell. Nobody told the participants the name of each smell—they simply sniffed and selected colors. The results confirm previous findings that color-odor connections are fairly stable within a culture. Notably, they show that these connections differ across cultures.

THE SNIFF TEST: Participants in six cultural groups rated the colors they thought of while smelling each scent. Colors near the baseline of each section were selected most frequently.

People largely agreed that the fruity scent smelled like pink and red, while the musty scent smelled orange and brown. Some results seem counter-intuitive—while most cultures agree that soap smells like lighter pastel colors, Germans and Netherlands-residing Chinese thought of a dark grey hue. The plastic smell mostly elicited a dark, neutral palette, but Germans and Dutch thought of bright pink and orange.

Researchers predicted that the palettes would be similar between cultures that share geography or language, but that was not the case. Americans and Germans had similar results, as did Germans and Malaysians. Overall, the U.S. participants’ color choices were most similar to all other cultures, while Malaysians tended to be the outliers. The results open a whole new argument about which particular factors contribute to color-odor differences. They could include language, age, travel experience, and frequency of cooking.

By the way, studies show that people’s ability to label odors is “astonishingly bad.” To tease out the effects of language, Levitan and her colleagues suggest, studies could ask participants to identify the odor before making color choices.


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Relation between chocolate scent and book

Belgian researchers report the enticing aroma of chocolate inspired bookstore shoppers to stick around longer, and boosted sales of certain genres.

Publish date: Jul 18, 2013

Great news for independent booksellers striving to keep their shops profitable in an Amazon-dominated marketplace. Researchers in Belgium have discovered a simple, inexpensive way to keep customers in the store longer and, quite possibly, boost sales.

They report shoppers are more likely to engage in leisurely browsing—and ultimately purchase books in certain popular genres, including romance novels—if the store is infused with the scent of chocolate.

Writing in the Journal of Environmental Psychology, a research team led by Lieve Doucé of Hasselt University describes a 10-day experiment conducted in a general-interest bookstore in Belgium.

“Retailers can make use of pleasant ambient scents to improve the store environment, leading consumers to explore the store.”

For approximately half of its open-for-business hours (either morning or afternoon, depending upon the specific day), the scent of chocolate was dispersed into the store from two locations. The smell was subtle enough that it wasn’t immediately noticeable, but strong enough so that it could be instantly identified once it was pointed out.

Researchers tracked the actions of every fifth customer to enter the store—a total of 201 people. They report that when the scent was activated, shoppers showed a greater tendency to take their time, check out a variety of titles, and/or chat with an employee.

Specifically, “customers were 2.22 times more likely to closely examine multiple books when the chocolate scent was present in the store, compared with the control condition,” they write.

In addition, when the aroma was present, shoppers were less likely to search out one specific book and take it directly to the cash register. Something about the store’s environment made them want to hang out a bit longer than they perhaps had planned.

Tom Jacobs


yaratıcılık ve koku uygulama

How we can be more creative with scent

New research suggests specially selected nocturnal odors can inspire creativity.

Yayınlanma tarihi: Dec 3, 2012

“Sleep on it” is a traditional piece of advice for puzzled people in need of an innovative solution. In recent years, the wisdom of this approach has been validated by science, with one study linking dream-heavy REM sleep with later flashes of insight.

There is no guarantee you’ll awake from a nap with an ending for your novel. But newly published research suggests the odds of such a breakthrough increase if you remind your slumbering self of the pressing issue at hand.

That requires employing a sense that remains alert and functioning even as we sleep: smell.

In a first-of-its-kind study, a research team led by Simone Ritter of the Radboud University Behavioral Science Institute in the Netherlands reports the beneficial effect of sleep on creativity can be enhanced by an evocative scent. It is published in the December issue of the always-stimulating Journal of Sleep Research.

Ritter and her colleagues, including Maarten Bos of Harvard Business School, describe a study featuring 49 participants between the ages of 18 and 29. All arrived at a laboratory in the evening and watched a 10-minute video about volunteer work.

They were then sent to bed as they pondered the problem: How can people be motivated to volunteer more of their time? They were expected to provide some innovative answers first thing in the morning.

For two-thirds of the participants, “a hidden scent diffuser spread an orange-vanilla odor while participants watched the movie and were informed about the creativity task,” the researchers write. Before going to bed, they were given an envelope containing a second scent diffuser, which they were instructed to open before falling asleep.

Tom Jacobs



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